Alpha Particle - Positively charged particle which is the atomic nucleus of a helium atom that consists of two protons and two neutrons.

Archetype Particle (Illustration)- Fundamental structure which is ubiquitous in the universe which may be found at different size scales but which nevertheless share common attributes of structure, dynamics and behavior.

Antiparallel - Vectors (such as a velocity) which are antiparallel are those which point in exact opposite directions. Hence, two particles which have relative motion will always have (with respect to one another) antiparallel velocities since their motions are not taken with respect to a coordinate system but only with respect to each other. Conversely, two particles which are in the same rest frame, with respect to any (and every) other particle in the universe which is not in that rest frame, will have parallel velocities (motion vectors). Thus, any two like-charged particles which are in the same rest frame will have parallel motion vectors and will constitute parallel current elements and hence will be attractively interactive (see General Case). Also, any two unlike-charged particles which are in the same rest frame will have parallel motion vectors but will constitute antiparallel current elements and will exhibit repulsive interaction (see General Case).

Baryon - Normally, any strongly interacting fermion, as a proton or neutron. So, any of the elementary particles having a mass equal to or greater than that of a proton and that participate in strong interactions; a hadron with a baryon number of +1

B-surface - A magnetic structure which is really an equipotential surface normal to which are the velocity potentials (Poynting Vectors).

Binary - Two. Refers to having two primary subcomponents. All motion between quanta, for example, is binary. Because motion between quantum particles is relative then if arbitrary vectors are always assigned in the same way between quanta then the motion between two quanta will always have two antiparallel (see above) vectors and hence be binary. For example, from the viewpoint of either of two quantum particles which have relative motion one must consider that either the viewpoint quantum is moving or the other quantum is moving. If one takes either observational consideration then one must take the exact same observational consideration from the other particle's viewpoint. Since a quantum observer cannot move with respect to itself then it is reasonable to consider the other particle as moving.

Bose-Einstein Condensate - Sometimes called a BEC for short, is a state where all the particles participating in a BEC have overlapping quantum states and are attractively interactive. This condition appears when the relative motion of individual particles approaches zero or when their common de Broglie wavelengths are greater than the interparticle distances.

Boson - any of a class of elementary particles not subject to the exclusion principle that have spins of zero or an integral number, as photons or mesons. A composite atom can also be referred to as a boson or bosonic atom if the sum of the spin states of all of its subcomponents are 0 or an integral number.

Common de Broglie wavelength - The de Broglie wavelength, λ, of a particle is defined as: lamba= h/mv where h= Planck's Constant, m= mass, and v=velocity. Thus, two interacting particles each have a de Broglie wavelength which is specific only to that relationship. In a universe of n particles, a single particle has n-1 de Broglie wavelengths. Since we're concentrating on a specific relationship then we can arbitrarily distribute the absolute velocity between the two particles (inversely proportional to their mass) into parts to arrive at the single unique solution of a common de Broglie wavelength so as to also satisfy Newton's Third Law of Motion which requires that they have equal momentum.

Core Origin Neutrons - The catalyzing core field of the SKYBOLTTM reactor system oscillates between two flux loop modes, the E-loop mode and the H-loop mode. As the primary flux loop oscillates between modes it periodically enters the H-loop mode where the structure displays the characteristics of an electric dipole structure. At the inner equator the structure can make quatum scale loops or micro scale flux loop structures which are quantum scale copies of the larger loop structure. Those quantum scale duplicates are, in fact, neutrons. Typically the neutron generation occurs at the greatest rate along the poloidal axis at the inner equator; the resultant neutron flux is utilized to enhance (by the contribution of neutrons) reactions catalyzed in the core. This process has been unrecognized in the mainstream physics community despite extensive experimental evidence of the generation of large bursts of neutrons during numerous plasma pinch experiments. Return to Features

Coronal Mass Ejection - Abbreviated CME. Large scale electromagnetotoroidal (EMT) structure which leaves the Sun in the toroidal current mode (E flux loop mode).   These are generated by a process the effect of which is the same as if there had been a π/2 radian radian rotation of the magnetic flux density vector of an ordinary macro scale closed magnetic flux loop system around the axis of the Poynting vector which is everywhere a normal to a flux loop quasi-surface. Such loops originate from the primary flux loop system of the Sun itself which has been perturbed so that there is a Poynting vector density change along a small section of the primary flux loop system. Such perturbations generally occur while the Sun is either in the H-flux loop mode or changing back to an E-flux loop mode. These relatively stable large scale structures can mass billions of tons of matter {protons and electrons mostly} and can propagate from the sun to the earth at over 600 miles per second, and can contain enough energy to boil away the Mediterranean Sea (or many seas the size of the Caspian Sea) if sufficiently focused.  CME's can wreak havoc with low Earth orbit satellites (typically belonging to the U.S. intelligence community) by causing the Earth's magnetic field to rapidly expand.   This causes the atmosphere to expand slightly and can cause such satellites to encounter atmosphere such that they may begin to experience orbit decay by a reduction in their velocity.  Advance warning of CME's is important to the satellite owners so that they can have an opportunity to boost them to higher orbits.  CME's can also effect other satellites.   The AT&T 401 Telstar was knocked out of commission by a CME in January of 1997.  The interaction of a CME with the Earth's magnetic field can cause the magnetic field to change rapidly and generate ground currents which can trip overload relays across entire power grids.

Coulomb's Law- Law which supposedly governs the forces of attraction or repulsion between electrical charges. In the vernacular, "Unlike charges attract and like charges repel."  Within the limits of experimental accuracy, Coulomb demonstrated that the Coulomb force, F, of attraction or repulsion between two charges, p and q, is proportional to the inverse square of the distance, r, separating the two charges, that is, F is proportional to 1/r2 Later work indicated that for a fixed charge separation, the force was also directly proportional to the product of the two charges, pq. Thus F is proportional to pq/r2.

Like charges give a positive F, or an outwardly directed force of repulsion; unlike charges yield a negative F, or an inwardly directed force of attraction. In SI (Systeme International) units, Coulomb's law can be written F = pq/(p)(e)r2 where the charges are in coulombs, the distances are in meters, and the Greek lower-case letter eta is the dielectric constant of the medium between the two charges. For free space, e = 8.85419 X 10 -12 farad/meter. The dielectric constant in air and most gases is only slightly different from that in vacuum (about one part in 2,000), but in solid dielectrics and liquids the force is decreased substantially; for example, the relative dielectric constant of quartz is 40 times that of free space, and that of water is 80 times that of free space.

However, Coulomb's Law, it is now known, can only refer to interactions between charged particles which have a common de Broglie wavelength which is less than the interparticle distance. See "General Case"

Current Density Vector Rotation. (See Electric Flux Density Vector Rotation...below)

Deuteron - A positively charged particle consisting of a proton and a neutron, equivalent to the nucleus of an atom of deuterium.

Deuterium - An isotope of hydrogen, having twice the mass of ordinary hydrogen; a.k.a. heavy hydrogen.

Degenerate - Said of a magnetic line of force which closes on itself.

Electric Flux Density Vector and Magnetic Flux Density Vector Rotations - A new discovery of really ubiquitous phenomenon in the universe.  This Electric Flux (density) Vector Rotation (EFVR) or Magnetic Flux (density) Vector Rotation (MFVR) phenomenon is manifested as if there had been a π/2 radian rotation of the electric flux density vector or the magnetic flux density vector for a flux loop system (either H flux loop or E flux loop) around the axis of the Poynting vector (which is everywhere a normal to the flux loop quasi-surface).

The change in the direction of the primary flux density vector around the axis of the Poynting vector density change where the PEτ or PHτ refers to the Poynting vector of either an E flux torus or an H flux torus is only so in appearance which is to say that there is not a continuous change in the direction of the flux density vector but rather that the end result is as if such a rotation had occurred. The ∇ X H denotes that the ∇ X H vector field developes on the closed surface of the flux torus and hence will be self intersecting. See the graphic.

Velocity Potential - A dynamic one dimensional relationship between fundamental particles. Also the media of propagation of particles and light quanta. When properly generalized as a discrete velocity potential the nature of charge and gravity is immediately revealed. In a universe of n particles the unit charge takes on a new type of metric as it is defined as exactly n-1 velocity potentials of either a sink or source nature. A velocity potential mapped exactly onto its binary conjugate is a primitive null line and in a universe of n particles the unit gravitational 'charge' is composed of n-1 sink potentials mapped exactly onto their binary conjugates of n-1 source potentials so that the fundamental gravitational charge is n-1 velocity potential null lines which are associated with a primitive flux loop system (electromagnetotoroid).

Electromagnetotoroid - (sometimes shortened to magnetotoroid or EMT) Refers specifically to a Magnetic or Electric Flux loop system. Archetype. An electromagnetotoroid is a large or small scale singularity / primitive flux loop system.

Exclusion Principle - the quantum-mechanical principle that no two identical particles having spin equal to half an odd integer can be in the same quantum state. Also called Pauli exclusion principle.

Fermion - any elementary particle, as a neutron, proton, or electron, that is subject to the exclusion principle and whose spin is half an odd integer: 1/2, 3/2, etc.

Fission - The splitting of the nucleus of an atom into nuclei of lighter atoms, accompanied by the release of energy. This can be a spontaneous event or can be stimulated by the bombardment of a target nucleus with subatomic particles like protons or neutrons.

Fusion - The joining of atomic nuclei in a reaction to form nuclei of heavier atoms, as the combination of deuterium atoms to form helium atoms (alpha particles).

General Case - Coulomb's Law is a special case subsumed under a General Case which describes the interaction of charged particles under all dynamic interaction possibilities and which contains four simple parts:

1) "If like-charged fundamental particles have a common de Broglie wavelength greater than or equal to the interparticle distance then they will attractively interact."

2) "If unlike charged fundamental particles have a common de Broglie wavelength greater than or equal to the interparticle distance then they will repulsively interact."

3) "If like-charged fundamental particles have a common de Broglie wavelength less than the interparticle distance then they will repulsively interact."

4) "If unlike charged fundamental particles have a common de Broglie wavelength less than the interparticle distance then they will attractively interact."

Parts three and four correspond to behavior which one would expect with respect to Coulomb's Law but they are subsumed under the 'general case'.

What is meant by a 'common' de Broglie wavelength?

The de Broglie wavelength, λ, of a particle is defined as:


λ=h/mv and then two interacting particles have de Broglie wavelengths which are specific only to that relationship.  In a universe of n particles a single particle has n-1 de Broglie wavelengths (and momentum states).  Since we're concentrating on a specific relationship then we can arbitrarily distribute the absolute velocity between the two particles into parts inversely with respect to their mass to arrive at the single unique solution of a 'common' de Broglie wavelength.  This establishes a frame where they have equal and opposite momentum.

Newton's Third Law - Gary S. Settles wrote the following for Grolier's Encyclopedia:

"According to Newton's third law of motion, which is also known as the principle of action and reaction, every action (or force) gives rise to a reaction (or opposing force) of equal strength but opposite direction. In other words, every object that exerts a force on another object is always acted upon by a reaction force. The recoil of a gun, the thrust of a rocket, and the rebound of a hammer from a struck nail are examples of motion due to reaction forces."

But Newton's third law of motion, as articulated above, could be erroneously argued to contain the implied idea that two particles which have relative motion don't really have equal and opposite momenta until they interact in some local and physical fashion (such as an elastic collision).  But the fact is that each particle already has an equal and opposite momentum with respect to n-1 other particles in the universe.  A locally observed collision merely expresses the equal and opposite momentum for the involved particles in a specific frame with respect to a local observer, however, every particle already has an equal and opposite momentum with respect to every other particle in the universe antecedent to any collision.  If it didn't then there would be implied the idea of a preexisting preferential inertial frame which idea is anathema to modern physics.

So this is just a simple way to define whether or not two particles had (or have) a common rest frame or are occupying a common momentum space.

The classical derivation is straightforward as we consider two particles that are in the same rest frame. With respect to any third particle in the universe which has motion with respect to them they will have equal and parallel velocities.

Now we know that the force between parallel current carrying conductors is given by:

where I1,I2= Current in amps = q/t and l = length of parallel conductors in meters (or v*t for particles),
K= 10e-7 nt/amp2 R= distance between the conductors in meters F= newtons

If the currents are antiparallel (moving in exact opposite directions) to one another then the force is repulsive.  And we know that there is no force between them (other than gravity) when they are not carrying a current so that the implication is that the relative motion of the charges is related to the force between them.

This follows from the idea is that a charge in motion is the simplest definition of a current and that a charged particle in motion is really a microcurrent element.

So it is that any two like charged fundamental particles which are in the same rest frame (recall that they have parallel velocities with respect to any third particle in the universe which has motion with respect to them) are really two parallel current elements and so will be attractively interactive.

If those two particles are oppositely charged they still will have parallel velocities but they will be antiparallel current elements and according to the equation would repel one another.

Any two particles which have relative motion already have antiparallel trajectories.  Remember, at the quantum or discrete particle level a particle doesn't have a single discrete velocity with respect to an ensemble of particles but has rather a multiplicity of velocities.  In a universe of n particles each particle has n-1 velocities as it is juxtaposed with respect to every other particle in the universe of which there are exactly n-1.  Therefore, it always has n-1 momentum states or one with respect to each and every other particle in the universe.  This viewpoint disavows the Copenhagen Interpretation which posits that a particle's state is probabilistic and is adequately described by a wave equation so that the act of observation or measurement collapses the wave to a single observable (presumably demolishing the quasi-existence of other states).   One might argue that a particle has an infinite range of possible momentum states with respect to a single other particle suggesting that the absolute velocity between them can be arbitrarily distributed in parts to provide a continuous spectrum.  This an invalid argument which is easily refuted.  See Potential Theory

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - These two observables, momentum and position, are non commuting in principle according to accepted quantum theory. But most people lack a comprehension of why this should be true. Viewed from the context of this new and apocalyptic physics perhaps we can illustrate the foundational principles. In a universe of n particles each particle is traversing n-1 trajectories or one with respect to each and every other particle in the universe. So its motion(s) are highly nonlocal. In Schrödinger's equation the potentials play a role which is analogous to the index of refration in optics. This really means that the potentials are the media of propagation and they are in precise identity with velocity potentials (called potentials when they are nonlocal). A particle is always traversing n-1 trajectories, exactly, and consequently has only a single and discrete momentum state with respect to some other discrete and real particle. The act of choosing, out of n-1 possible momentum states, a single state, is an act of localization itself but a momentum state is a discrete relationship between two particles not a relationship between an ensemble of particles and a single particle. The idea of 'position' is, however, just the opposite. Momentum is a vector quantity which is assigned to a particle which will always be equal and opposite to that which it is juxtaposed or compared with respect to. Two particles have relative motion which can only be expressed in terms of the rate of change in the one dimensional relationship which exists between them. Particles obtain a quality of three dimensionality (from which the concept of position emerges) only when the perceiver consists of multiple points of perception and imposes the integration of those multiple (and simultaneous) viewpoints (for each of which there a single or discrete momentum relationship) with respect to the particle in question. So, in fact, the very idea or concept of position requires the existence of a multiplicity of momentum states for a single particle and their simultaneous perception and intellectual integration.

Homeomorphism -  see Archetype note on homeomorphism.

Lepton - any of a class of elementary particles with spin of 1/2 that are not subject to the strong force, as the electron and muon.

Local - descriptive of any direct relativistic relationships.  Particle A may have a direct velocity with respect to particle B but that relationship is only local between particle A and particle B but  is not local to some third particle.  (also see Nonlocal)

Magnetosphere - A common misnomer. Normally this refers to the region around a body such as a star or planet in which the dipole magnetic field of such a body is measurably present. Actually, an electromagnetotoroid (EMT) is the underlying structure which generates the dipole field which is the essence of the what is commonly referred to as a magnetosphere. The 'sphere' part of the word refers not to a geometric sphere but rather to a sphere (or region) of influence.

Magnetotoroid - See Electromagnetotoroid.

Momentum - Product of a particle's mass and velocity generally expressed as p = mv.  The momentum of a photon, however, is given as p = hv/c where h is Plank's constant, v = frequency and c = velocity of light.

Monoenergetic - Same energy level with respect to any third reference frame. Also vectors with the same value. Absolute low relative motion state.

Monopole - Often magnetic monopole. Thought to be a hypothetical heavy subatomic particle with an isolated magnetic north or south pole. But the question of whether or not magnetic monopoles exist has a certain amount of intellectual baggage that goes along with it that needs to be corrected. Some might phrase the question to include a statement of belief that is, itself, incorrect. One might say: "Do magnetic monopoles exist like electric monopoles exist?" Clearly, there is a belief that electric monopoles exist in isolation and that people consider that individual or discrete elementary charged particles are examples of electric monopoles. Let's clear up a misconception, the existence of which, is the cause that one might ask about magnetic monopoles in the first place. Electric monopoles, in fact, do not exist in isolation. In other words, every charged particle, to exist, has to have its correlated charge conjugate mate. A charged particle's conjugate mate does not have to be anywhere near it but the fact that they are correlatively linked or that elementary charged particles must exist in correlated pairs implies that they do not actually exist in isolation.

Neutron- Ostensibly an elementary particle found in most atomic nuclei, having no charge, mass slightly greater than that of a proton, and experimentally demonstrating a spin of 1/2. The neutron is considered to be a fermion because of its measured spin quantity. The free neutron has a half life of approximately 1010 seconds and decays into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. A neutron actually is an example of the Archetype structure at the microscope level and thence because its net spin is actually zero cannot be a true fermion as thought. This implies that antineutrinos (and neutrinos) actually must be EM quanta and not leptons. Neutrons can be created by the π/2 radian rotation of the electric flux density vector, D, across a micro domain cross section.

Nonlocal - descriptive of any non relativistic relationship.  Particle A may have a direct velocity with respect to particle B but that relationship is only local between particle A and particle B and is nonlocal to some third particle C. A will have a local relationship with C, and B will have local relationship with C, but the A-C relationship is nonlocal to B and the A-B relationship is nonlocal to C.   In a universe of n particles each particle has n-1 momentum states each of which is indicative of a single local relationship between a given particle and some one other given particle.   Each particle has but only one local relationship with each and every other particle in the universe.   Since a given particle A has n-1 relationships but only one local relationship with B then A has n-2 relationships which exist but which are nonlocal to B.  Since with respect to B there are n-1 other particles each of which have n-2 dynamic or momentum relationships which are nonlocal to B this implies that there are (n-1)*(n-2) = n2-3n+2 dynamic relationships in the universe which are nonlocal to B.  For relatively small values of n this represents more than 99.9999% of the dynamics of the universe.  Any nonlocal relationship is expressed as a potential velocity or velocity potential (since it is not manifested as a velocity in the local frame).

Nonlocal Interaction - Any interaction between fundamental particles which is mediated through the vector potentials (velocity potentials).  Often any relationship which can be related to the interacting particles having overlapping momentum states which is that they possess a 'common de Broglie wavelength' which is equal to or greater than the interparticle distance.

Photon - a quantum of electromagnetic radiation, usually considered as an elementary particle (boson) that is its own antiparticle and that has zero rest mass and charge and an experimentally measured spin of one. The propagation of a photon (retarded wave EM quanta) requires the presence of its time reversed conjugate (advanced wave EM quanta) which must propagate backwards through time from the target. Photons propagate along discrete trajectories known as vector potentials which are discrete velocity potentials that exist between all particles in the universe. But the fact that photons (notably gamma ray photons) can be decomposed to two charge conjugate particles implies that they produce a time gradient field and this directly implies that ordinary electromagnetic radiation, is, in fact, gravitational radiation.

Planck's Constant- a unit used in quantum mechanics that equals the ratio of the energy of a quantum of radiation to the frequency of the radiation, approximately 6.626 x 10-34 joule second Symbol: h. [1905-10; after M. K. E. PLANCK]

Poloidal Axis - The axis of a torus which can be characterized by line perpendicular to the plane of the toroidal axis which passes through the center of the hole of the torus (as in a polar axis).

Poloidal Current - Current which makes a loop that is tangential to the poloidal axis and which lies on a plane perpendicular to the toroidal axis and which generally is axisymmetrically distributed around the poloidal axis.

Singularity - A discontinuity in a manifold or continuum, a point at which a mathematical function of real or complex variables is not differentiable or analytic. Also, the state, fact, or quality of being singular as in having no discrete sub components as in a single toroidal magnetic surface. A dual toroidal structure composed of two counter-oriented toroidal magnetic surfaces could be referred to as a singularity because its sub components are cooperatively linked in spin up spin down states and because they share a common electric flux density vector.

Spin- Ostensibly and normally described as the intrinsic angular momentum characterizing each kind of elementary particle, having one of the values 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, ... when measured in units of Planck's constant, h, divided by 2*pi. However, spin can be properly interpreted as the orientation of the curl function of the electric flux density vector of any charged particle.

Superconduction- the disappearance of electrical resistance in certain metals at temperatures near absolute zero and in new classes of ceramic oxides and other materials at temperatures well above this. A conduction state characterized as being composed of spin up / spin down electron pairs (Cooper Pairs - after their discoverer, Leon Cooper). However, the electrons appear to follow Bose-Einstein statistics rather than Fermi-Dirac statistics so that the proper analysis of the charges in a superconduction state is that they are arranged in such a fashion that the entire state is bosonic. See Archetype Particle -for a comparison of the superconduction state with that of the Archetype.   The generation of a boson which is equivalent in structure to the Archetype implies that one of the pair of electrons has inverted its potential gradient (became equivalent to an electron-hole) so that a time dilation field is produced.  This structure's influence upon surrounding electrons induces them to become attractively interactive with each other and the original structure.  This produces a cascading effect until all the available conduction electrons are swept up into a unit field and have lost their discreteness to this super bosonic state.  Type II superconductors appear to limit the spread of the bosonic structure and so produce discrete domains of bosons which appear as magnetic vortices.

Time Dilation Quasi-Surface- A useful heuristic concept is the equipotential surface; in this case a quasi-surface (equipotential surface of null velocity potentials) which is generated by the presence of velocity potentials and their conjugates mapped onto each other one-to-one and distributed as nonparallel normals to what in effect would be a curved surface.  For example, a neutron which is an Archetype particle can be conceived to be a stacked series of such toroidal time dilation surfaces each of which has greater curvature (and less surface area) until at the limit a closed curved line is met which has zero surface. Yet such a construction doesn't permit infinite density (as would potentials converging to a point). Such topology  makes a neutron the source of a time gradient field (gravity field) because it is an example of a special type of homeomorphism wherein the source velocity potentials which comprise the inner torus (electron) are mapped onto and one to one with the sink velocity potentials of the outer torus (proton). Normally a homeomorphism is considered to be comprised of components (topological spaces or surfaces) which are continuous.  See Archetype note on homeomorphism.

The surfaces composed of these velocity potentials, because they (the velocity potentials themselves) are discrete relationships between a finite number of particles, are not truly continuous in the sense of being infinitely differentiable. Nevertheless, the proximity of two particles to the source of a time dilation field is inversely related to the magnitude of their common de Broglie wavelength (λc) and hence will dictate interactive behavior with respect to each other. This is a useful relationship to exploit because according to the General Casefusion fuel nuclei brought into close proximity of the source of a strong time dilation surface (implicit here is the idea of a time-gradient field [which is the same thing as a gravitational field]) will become ionized and strongly attractively interactive with each other. Thus, a strong time gradient field catalyzes nuclear fusion reactions at rates only dictated by the fueling rate.

Time Gradient Field - A gravitational field. Atomic clocks run at a reduced rate the lower they are in a gravitational field. A stacked series of time dilation surfaces (gravitational equipotential surfaces) each with greater curvature is the source of a time gradient or gravitational field See Time Dilation Quasi-Surface. A time gradient field is not a continuous structure any more than a time dilation surface is a continuous surface but nevertheless such surfaces and such fields (or structures) for experimental purposes where part of the experiment consists of a measurement or series of measurements to establish concepts such as an equipotential surface then such a field or such a surface appears continuous. The appearance of continuous structures is an artifact or necessary perceptual aspect of the measurement process itself and is not inherent in the actual structure.

Toroid - A torus. (See torus picture)

Toroidal - Of or relating to a torus. (See torus picture)

Toroidal Axis - The axis of a torus which specifically makes a closed loop around the hole of a torus but not through the hole of the torus. (See torus picture)

Torus - A donut shaped geometric construction. (See torus picture)

Tritium - A radioactive isotope of hydrogen having an atomic weight of three.

Triton - A positively charged particle consisting of a proton and two neutrons, equivalent to the nucleus of an atom of tritium.

Velocity - A directed vector with magnitude. The time rate of change of position of a body (or particle) with respect to another body (or particle). Hence, in a universe of n particles every particle has exactly n-1 velocities of which it is only possible to observe one velocity. However, n-2 other velocities of a particular particle continue to exist and are properly interpretable as velocity potentials or vector potentials.

Vortex particle - A single vortical instance which consists of n-1 sink type or source type vector potentials (in a universe of n particles) collected as normals to a magnetic or electric flux loop toroidal surface and which terminate to a toroidal axis. Hence an instance of the unit charge. A neutral vortex particle (see Neutron) would consist of both sides of such a toroidal surface which have a common electric flux density vector and which have a common poloidal and a common toroidal axis.